How To Create and Use One-line If statement in JavaScript?

One-line if statements allow writing conditional logic concisely in JavaScript. When used properly, they can make code more readable by reducing visual clutter.

Benefits of One-Line If Statements

  • Avoid boilerplate code and nested indentation
  • Improve readability for simple logic
  • Prevent unintended scope changes
  • Reduce noise and focus attention
  • Concise syntax for frequent binary checks

Drawbacks to Consider

  • Can reduce understandability if overused
  • Limited to simple expression without blocks
  • Lack support for else if and multiple branches
  • Easy to introduce subtle bugs and mistakes

Ternary Operator If/Else

  • Syntax options and variations
  • Conditional (immediate) execution vs assignment
  • Single expression vs full statement syntax
  • Limitations and good use cases
  • Examples including nesting ternaries

Logical AND If Statement

  • Short-circuit evaluation behavior
  • Truthy/falsy gotchas to watch out for
  • Lack of else clause and empty statement
  • Examples including default assignment
  • Edge cases and cautionary tales

Logical OR If Statement

  • Short-circuit evaluation behavior
  • Truthy/falsy gotchas to watch out for
  • Lack of else clause and empty statement
  • Examples including default assignment
  • Edge cases and cautionary tales

Multi-Line If Statement Alternatives

  • Traditional if/else statements
  • Switch case statements
  • Immediately invoked function expressions (IIFEs)
  • When to prefer multi-line conditional logic

Readability Best Practices

  • Formatting guidelines for one-liners
  • Limiting line length
  • Comments for clarification
  • Appropriate and judicious use
  • Refactoring criteria and improving legibility

By the end of this deep dive, you’ll thoroughly understand the ins and outs of writing readable and robust one-line if statements in JavaScript. Let’s get started!

Benefits of One-Line If Statements

One-line if statements provide several advantages over standard multi-line conditional blocks:

Avoid Boilerplate Code and Nested Indentation

By collapsing if/else logic into a single line, one-liners avoid extraneous braces, indentation, and boilerplate JavaScript syntax.

This cleans up the appearance of simple conditional checks:

// Long form 
if (count > 0) {
  console.log('There are items in the cart');
}

// One-liner
count > 0 && console.log('There are items in the cart'); 
JavaScript

The reduction in visual clutter helps focus attention on the logic rather than the syntactic structure.

Improve Readability for Simple Logic

For straightforward true/false checks, one-line conditionals can actually improve readability over multi-line alternatives. The intent becomes more immediately clear.

By skimming for the binary operators like ? :, && and ||, you can quickly grasp simple conditional logic.

Prevent Unintended Scope Changes

Unlike multi-line if statements, one-liners don’t create a new nested lexical scope in JavaScript. This avoids issues when conditionally setting variables:

// Will change scope and leak `discount` into global  
if (promoCode) {
  let discount = 0.1;
}

// No scope change
promoCode && (discount = 0.1);
JavaScript

Reduce Noise and Focus Attention

Removing indentation, braces, and boilerplate focuses attention purely on the conditional logic. This forces you to distill conditionals down to their essence.

Concise Syntax for Frequent Binary Checks

For very common binary true/false checks, the compact operators ? : and && || provide convenient shorthand syntax. This reduces visual repetition.

However, one-liners also come with drawbacks, especially if overused.

Drawbacks to Consider

While one-line if statements can help clean up simple conditionals, be aware of these potential downsides:

Can Reduce Understandability if Overused

Too many compact one-liners packed together make it harder to linearly scan and understand code. It becomes challenging to parse the program flow when scroll-reading.

Limited to Simple Expression Without Blocks

One-line conditionals only allow an immediate expression, not a full block with arbitrary logic. This forces code fragmentation into separate one-liners.

Lack Support for else if and Multiple Branches

Most one-line formats like ?: and && only offer simple if/else logic. Complex conditional chains require multi-line if/else instead.

Easy to Introduce Subtle Bugs and Mistakes

Omitting braces increases the risk of bugs when adding or modifying logic. It’s also easy to incorrectly assign instead of compare equality.

Not Always More Readable Than Multi-Line

Although one-liners remove visual noise, deeply nested and fragmented one-liners often become less readable than well-formatted multi-line conditional blocks.

Mixing One-Liners and Multi-Line Can Be Jarring

The constant switching between compact one-liners and multi-line blocks creates cognitive dissonance. It interrupts the reading flow when scanning code.

So while one-line if statements can help clean up simple checks, take care not to overuse them or force complex logic into compact syntax.

Now let’s explore specific one-line options starting with the ternary operator.

Ternary Operator If/Else

The ternary operator provides an inline way to evaluate if/else conditional logic:

condition ? exprIfTrue : exprIfFalse
JavaScript

Let’s break down the syntax:

  • condition – Expression evaluating to true or false
  • ? – Separator denoting start of if case
  • exprIfTrue – Expression to execute if condition is truthy
  • : – Separator between if and else cases
  • exprIfFalse – Expression to execute if condition is falsy

This allows implementing if/else logic in a single line instead of multiple.

For example:

let accessAllowed = (age > 18) ? true : false;
JavaScript

Ternary statements make great one-line shortcuts but also introduce complexity. Here are some nuances to understand:

Conditional (Immediate) Execution vs Assignment

The ternary operator is commonly used for conditional assignment to a variable:

let message = (loggedIn) ? 'Hello' : 'Please login'; 
JavaScript

However, it can also execute code conditionally without an assignment:

(cards.length > 0) ? console.log('You have cards') : console.log('No cards present');
JavaScript

This provides a concise one-line if/else statement shorthand specifically for conditional execution, avoiding unnecessary temporary variables.

Single Expression vs Full Statement Syntax

By default, the ternary expects simple expressions in the if and else clauses:

let age = (under18) ? 'minor' : 'adult';
JavaScript

But you can also execute multi-line statements using a comma operator:

(under18) ? 
  (console.log('Checking age'), 'minor') :
  (console.log('Age verified'), 'adult')
JavaScript

This allows more complex logic while keeping the ternary syntax compact.

Limitations and Good Use Cases

The ternary operator only supports an if and else expression. It does not have else if or additional conditional branches.

So the ternary works best for simple binary checks and assignments, not complex multi-way logic. Good use cases:

  • Toggle between two possible values like on/off, enabled/disabled etc
  • Pick between two code paths conditionally
  • Set a default value if a condition fails
  • Initializing a variable based on a condition

Examples Including Nesting Ternaries

Here are some examples of using the ternary operator effectively:

// Toggle button between active/inactive  
let buttonState = (active) ? 'active' : 'inactive';
JavaScript

Default Value Assignment

// Default to empty array if null 
let cards = (userCards !== null) ? userCards : [];
JavaScript

Conditional Console Output

(items.length > 0) ? 
  console.log('You have items in your cart') :
  console.log('Your cart is empty');
JavaScript

Nested Ternary

let access = (over18) ? 
  (hasLicense) ? 'full' : 'provisional' :
  'denied';
JavaScript

Nesting ternaries allows implementing cascading if/else logic concisely. However, deeply nested ternaries rapidly become unreadable.

In summary, the ternary operator provides a compact inline syntax for basic conditional assignment and execution. Next, we’ll cover using logical operators && and || for one-line if statements.

Logical AND If Statement

The logical AND operator && can be used to execute a statement if a condition is truth:

condition && expressionIfTrue
JavaScript

For example:

const user = getUser();

user && greetUser(user);
JavaScript

This greets the user only if getUser() returned a valid user object.

Let’s explore how logical AND works and situational nuances to be aware of when using it in conditionals.

Short-Circuit Evaluation

The && operator uses short-circuit evaluation:

  • Evaluates the left condition first
  • If falsy, short-circuits and does NOT evaluate the right side
  • If truthy, executes the right expression

This avoids needing to explicitly compare truthiness:

// Without short-circuiting 

let user = getUser();

if (user != null) {
  greetUser(user); 
}

// With short-circuiting

let user = getUser();

user && greetUser(user);
JavaScript

Short-circuiting makes logical AND ideal for optional chained calls like:

let name = user && user.getName();
JavaScript

If user is falsy, the right side will not execute, preventing potential errors.

Truthy/Falsy Gotchas

Due to short-circuiting behavior, subtle bugs can occur based on truthy/falsy assumptions.

For example, this appears to check if cards contains any elements:

cards && console.log('Cards found');
JavaScript

However, it will print the message if cards is truthy, even if it’s an empty array!

Instead, compare length explicitly:

cards.length > 0 && console.log('Cards found');
JavaScript

So take care to properly check truthiness when using && in conditionals.

Lack of Else Clause

A drawback of logical AND is there is no else clause – it only executes the right side statement if the condition passes.

This limits it to straightforward binary true/false cases with a single expression. For anything more complex, use a full if/else statement.

Examples Including Default Assignment

Here are some examples of using logical AND effectively in one-line conditionals:

Check Empty Array

// Right way to check empty array 
items.length > 0 && console.log('Has items');
JavaScript

Default Assignment

// Default to empty string if falsy
let name = user.getName() && user.getName();

// Equivalent verbose multi-line logic
let name;
if (user.getName()) {
  name = user.getName();
}
JavaScript

Guarding Function Calls

// Only call if obj is truthy
obj && obj.init();

// Equivalent to:

if (obj) {
  obj.init();
}
JavaScript

Overall, logical AND provides a convenient compact syntax for executing expressions based on truthy conditions. But take care to properly handle truthy/falsy assumptions and edge cases due to lack of an else clause.

Logical OR If Statement

The logical OR operator || can serve as a concise one-line if statement as well:

condition || expressionIfFalse
JavaScript

For example:

let user = getUser();

user || logNotLoggedIn();
JavaScript

This logs a message if the getUser() check returned a falsy value.

Logical OR works similarly to AND but with inverted behavior due to short-circuit evaluation:

  • Evaluates the left condition first
  • If truthy, short-circuits and does NOT evaluate the right side
  • If falsy, executes the right expression

Next, we’ll explore nuances and cautionary tales when using || in one-line conditionals.

Truthy/Falsy Gotchas

Due to short-circuiting, pay close attention to truthy/falsy assumptions.

This appears to log if user is null:

let user = getUser();

user || console.log('User is null');
JavaScript

But it will execute the right side for any falsy value like 0 or empty string! Instead compare equality:

user === null || console.log('User is null');
JavaScript

So double check truthiness assumptions when using || conditionally.

Lack of Else Clause

Similar to &&, logical OR does not have an else clause. It only executes the right expression if the condition is falsy.

There is no way to specify a second expression if the condition passes. This limits || for simple binary cases.

Examples Including Default Assignment

Here are some examples of using logical OR well:

Assigning Default Values

// Default to 'anonymous' if user.name is falsy
let username = user.name || 'anonymous';

// Equivalent to:

let username;

if (!user.name) {
  username = 'anonymous';
} else {
  username = user.name; 
}
JavaScript

Providing Fallback Values

// Use default config if falsy
config = customConfig || defaultConfig;
JavaScript

Conditionally Executing Code

// Only show prompt if we don't have a username
!username && promptForUsername();
JavaScript

In summary, logical OR provides a way to execute code or values based on falsy conditions. But use caution to avoid wrong assumptions due to truthy/falsy evaluations.

Now let’s look at some multi-line conditional alternatives.

Multi-Line If Statement Alternatives

For complex conditional logic, one-line statements may not provide enough flexibility. Some common multi-line options include:

Traditional if/else Statements

Regular if/else conditional blocks allow full control flow with else if and else branches:

if (condition1) {
  //  ...
} else if (condition2) {
  // ...
} else {
  // ...
}
JavaScript

The ability to check multiple conditions and choose between different code paths helps handle more complex logic.

Switch Case Statements

Switch case is useful when conditionally executing different code blocks based on discrete values:

switch(level) {
  case 1: 
    // ...
    break;

  case 2:
    // ...
    break;
    
  default:
   // ...   
}
JavaScript

The orderly cases and ability to fallthrough make switch well-suited for certain types of conditional logic.

Immediately Invoked Function Expressions (IIFE)

Wrapping conditional logic in an IIFE avoids leaking to the surrounding scope:

(function() {

  if (condition) { 
    // limited scope 
  }
  
})();
JavaScript

IIFEs allow using multi-line conditional logic without introducing variable hoisting issues.

When to Prefer Multi-line Conditionals

Consider using a multi-line conditional format if:

  • You need else if/else clauses
  • The logic is complex or verbose
  • Code clarity is more important than brevity
  • Scope issues exist with one-liners
  • Mixing one-liners and multi-line becomes messy

Now let’s look at some readability best practices when using one-line conditionals.

Readability Best Practices

To keep one-line if statements maintainable, consider these formatting and usage suggestions:

Break Lines on Operators

Consider breaking a long ternary operator over multiple lines:

let val = (veryLongCondition)
  ? exprIfTrue
  : exprIfFalse;
JavaScript

Or break AND/OR logical statements:

veryLongCondition
  && exprIfTrue
  
veryLongCondition 
  || exprIfFalse
JavaScript

This improves readability while keeping compact syntax.

Limit Line Length

In general, try to keep lines under 80 characters when possible by breaking conditionals across multiple lines.

Use Comments for Clarification

Add occasional comments above one-liners to document their intent if not immediately clear:

// Default to empty array if no cards
let cards = user.cards || [];
JavaScript

Use Braces for Complex Logic

If you need multiple statements in a conditional branch, use braces:

condition && {
  updateState();
  refreshView(); 
}
JavaScript

Don’t try to cram complex logic into a single statement.

Use Judiciously and Refactor

Resist overusing one-liners. If you have successive conditionals or deep nesting, consider refactoring to multi-line conditionals for better readability.

Appropriate and Judicious Use

In general, follow these guidelines for using one-liners judiciously:

  • Reserve for simple true/false checks and assignments
  • Avoid cramming complex logic into terse syntax
  • Prefer multi-line conditionals for nested logic
  • Only use when logic is immediately clear to the reader
  • Refactor to multi-line if any ambiguity arises
  • Document unclear one-liners with preceding comments
  • Format for line length and readability

Err on the side of clarity rather than brevity.

Refactoring Criteria

Consider refactoring one-liners to multi-line conditionals if:

  • They exceed 80 characters per line
  • You need to scroll horizontally to read them
  • There is nested conditional logic
  • You are repetitively toggling between one-liners and multi-line
  • Intermixing one-liners and multi-line becomes disjointed

The goal is to use the best syntax for overall code clarity and improve legibility. Ask yourself if expanding a one-liner to multiple clearly formatted lines would help or harm understandability.

Summary

The key takeaways:

  • One-line if statements using ?:, && and || can improve compactness
  • Avoid overusing terse one-liners at the expense of readability
  • Stick to simple true/false checks rather than complex logic
  • Prefer multi-line conditionals for nested clauses
  • Use sensible formatting, line splitting, and comments
  • Refactor code when one-liners become unreadable
  • Ensure logic remains immediately clear to the reader

One-line if statements have appropriate uses for cleaning up trivial conditionals. But take care not to overuse them or obscure intent.

Prioritize code clarity through judicious use, formatting, and refactoring. The end goal is readable and maintainable software.

I hope this guide provides a thorough understanding of how to effectively leverage one-line if statements in JavaScript. Let me know if you have any other questions!

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